No country for 15 million
By Stewart M. Patrick and Isabella Bennett, CFR
Stewart M. Patrick is director of the International Institutions and Global Governance Program at the Council on Foreign Relations. Isabella Bennett is program coordinator. This entry moncler outlet of The Internationalist originally appearedhere. The views expressed are solely those of Stewart M. Patrick and Isabella Bennett.
Guor Marial, a cross country All American athlete at Iowa State, ran two marathons in Olympic qualifying times. cheap moncler jackets womens But withno passport and no country andno coach nor a sponsor hewatchedthe Summer Games’ opening ceremony from Flagstaff, Arizona. resident but without citizenship.
The day before the competition began, the International Olympic uk moncler sale Committee finallygrantedMarial permission to run as an independent athlete. Marial, who works at night and trains by day, finished 47th in London. No medal, but a rare triumph for the world’s stateless.
As many as15 millionpeople worldwide cannot claim a state as their own, because they lack legal citizenship or formal documentation of their status. They are, in effect, „legal ghosts,” lacking even the „right to have rights.” And unlike Marial, many are not even considered refugees placing them in a precarious legal limbo. They may be moncler uk outlet deprived of education, employment, housing, public health and welfare benefits, the right to vote, and access to legal justice.
Many people are born stateless. Discriminatory laws in some nations deny certain ethnic groups citizenship. In Myanmar, for instance, moncler outlet woodbury the cheap moncler jackets mens government maintains that the Rohingya people do not belong to the official „national races of Burma,” regardless of the fact that many of themtrace their roots back centuries.
In another notable case, the government of Slovenia erased the names of25,000 individualsfrom the national register because they had not met the three conditions for citizenship after its independence from Yugoslavia. Many of these „erased” people protested that they had never been informed of the policies.
Migrant workers or trafficked individuals may also lose citizenship status and their children may be ineligible for citizenship of any nation. Geography can also exacerbate statelessness, as some rural populations simply live cheap moncler coats mens too far from state registration clinics.
Finally, as Undersecretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs Maria Oteronotes, pervasive gender discrimination compounds statelessness.
In 26 uk moncler outlet countries, primarily in the Middle East and sub Saharan Africa,legislationcan prevent women from acquiring, conferring or changing their nationality. These laws prevent women from passing citizenship to a foreign husband (who may lose his citizenship upon marrying her) and also prevent women from monlcer down jackets passing citizenship to a child. For example, the Swaziland constitution decrees that a child born after 2005 is only a citizen if his or her father is a citizen.
While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights codifies a general right moncler outlet online to nationality, it does not spell moncler usa out the specific responsibilities of states to moncler outlet store guarantee nationality. The1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Personsand the1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessnessseek to fill this gap. These treaties define „statelessness,” and state parties agree to grant basic rights, such as bestowing citizenship at birth and supplying travel documents. But with only 74 and 45 state parties respectively, these instruments have made little headway in solving the growing problem of individuals who have no place to call home. diplomatsadvocate vigorouslyagainst discriminatory citizenship laws in other countries. High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), the main international agency mandated to address the plight of the world’s stateless. Supported by the international community, UNHCR has taken the lead in advocating for stateless people’s rights, encouraging accession to the relevant international conventions moncler womens jackets and providing policy advice and staff training to countries with large stateless populations. For instance, a2003 UNHCR initiativesupported a drive to register more than 190,000 „Estate Tamils” who were brought to Sri Lanka in the nineteenth century by the British.
The United States, through its engagement with regimes around the world that are falling short of their international obligations,can moncler outlet prices and should do more to moncler sale battle the problem of statelessness. A good start has been the increased attention given to stateless populations in the State Department’s annualCountry Reports on Human Rights Practices.
Taking a bilateral approach may be more realistic than seeking a comprehensive global solution, given one particularly inconvenient truth for Washington: that the largest proportion by far of the world’s stateless are members of the Palestinian diaspora, numbering perhaps 4 million people. Until the Palestinian Israeli conflict is settled, concerted global cooperation to fight statelessness will likely be stalled by its impact in moncler sale outlet that region.
The law in the USA used moncler outlet sale to state that an American woman marrying a foreign man lost her American citizenship, but moncler sale online an American man marrying a foreign woman kept his American citizenship. The (incorrect) assumption was that the woman would automatically be granted citizenship by her husband country. My grandmother married a Canadian man cheap moncler sale before World War I, and became stateless, although she did not realize this until she applied for a passport after World War II, and was told that she was cheapmoncler not an American citizen. She had to go through naturalization proceedings to regain her American citizenship, even though she had been born in the USA. The law has since been changed.
August 20, 2012 at 3:14 pm Reply
Taking a bilateral approach may be more realistic than seeking a comprehensive global solution, given one particularly inconvenient truth for Washington: that the largest proportion by far of the world’s stateless are members of the best moncler jackets Palestinian diaspora, numbering perhaps 4 million people. Until the Palestinian Israeli conflict is settled, concerted global cooperation to fight statelessness will likely be stalled by its impact in that region
AND YET THE US IS SUPPORTING cheap moncler jackets AN OCCUATION when 4 Miliion people are left without a country outside of the west bank. Go figure
August 20, 2012 at 4:02 pm Reply
Living in one area of the world is a natural human choice. It does not necessarily mean you adobt to be the national of that country. Most countries have a kind of ceremony in which you vow to hold that country before any other countries. To fight for that country in any crises, etc. It is not just paying the taxes. It means you wish and are truely committed to be a national of that country. It is rather a personal and sentimental issue. Not an administrative one.
Are you kidding me? The vast majority of news is plagiarized. Many news organizations, Huffington Post and to lesser extent the other major outlets, do very little exclusive reports. They steal from, and do not cite, the associated press or other original sources. In contrast, a full investigation by Time magazine reported that the plagiarism was an isolated incident, in many years of moncler online store outstanding journalism. Obviously, if he had intentionally plagiarized, he would have done it more than once over his career.
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